Hi, I'm Dave Osborne. With over 50 years experience as a journeyman carpenter, foreman and contractor in heavy construction I enjoyed working with apprentices and sharing the tricks of the trade that others shared with me. Now I get emails from Members all over the world and we include many of my answers in our Free Monthly Newsletters. Some of my answers include drawings and instructions specific to a project, but may also answer your questions. I use correct construction terminology, so you can confidently inform your building supply dealers or contractors exactly what you need.
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|Volume 10 Issue 5|
Welcome to Dave's Shop Talk's Home Improvement Newsletter of questions from our members on their construction projects, a Tip of the Month and a home remodeling article, both from our website at http://daveosborne.com.
When cutting identical pieces of boards for opposite ends of a project, place the pattern on the piece to be copied good face against good face. This way both opposite ends will have the best side of the pieces facing out. With the wood we get nowadays, each piece seems to have a good side and a bad side: Ref: Remodeling 12: How to Cut Crown Molding.
And a Bonus Tip:
When buying an older house, pay that inspector his dues. He'll give you a report of what needs attention and your offer on the house can be based on this report: Remodeling 21: Wood Framing Answers.
Sounds like you have it under control. The code says you need 1 1/4" of solid sub-floor for ceramic or porcelain tile.
If it is easier to remove any small pieces of 1/2" and replace with a full sheet, I would do that, rather than put down small pieces. All joints should be across the joists. The layer on top of the 1/2" should be tongue and grooved, 5/8" utility sheeting. Stagger all joints, keeping the grain of the plywood going across the joists. Some underlay, the 1/4", calls for a 4x4 nailing pattern, usually 1 1/8" staples. Screws with glue is better!
Yes, most definitely the ceiling joist can be butted up to each other over a bearing wall. BUT, you need to apply a scab over the two joists at least 2' on each joist - 4' over all, nailed securely to keep the joist from pulling apart when a load is introduced to the roof. This scab is made of the same material as the joists. I nail at least 6 - 3 1/4" nails on each side of the splice. Depending on the roof span and snow/wind load, the number goes up to 11 nails until trusses are required over large spans and heavy loads. Just think how many nails you have at the ends of the joists - to rafters and to the plate, then use this same number plus 1. Make sure the nails are spread out, this depends on the length of scab, also.
Yes, they shouldn't be too hard. I just would get some solid 1" rough material, like cedar and cut the ends on an angle, such as in the drawing, below:
If the sides are 2 or 3 boards, instead of a single one, just add vertical studs, on the inside to help tie the sides together. Dave
Here is a drawing to help explain. This drawing is not proportional to your situation:
Concentrate on building the foundation - posts and pads or walls and footings. Have the gutters match with the existing building. For a gable roof, run the ridge into the existing roof and frame down onto it. Remove the roofing material down to the sheeting. Place a 2x4 on the flat, nailed to the roof sheeting. Remove the roofing material down to the sheeting. Place a 2x4 on the flat, nailed to the roof sheeting. this will form the valleys. Nail your valley rafters to the ridge and to this flat 2x4.
The one thing to watch with all this is not to have the ridge going higher than the existing ridge. You can do this, but it looks better and less problems if the porch ridge comes into the house below the height of the house ridge. The height of the ridge depends on the span, so if the span of the porch roof is less than the span of the existing roof, you will have the ridge come lower. That is if the slopes are the same. Check that the 28' they want for the porch span is less than the span of the house. I hope this helps. If not, send me more specific info on the slope, spans, etc.
Glad the stair calculator helped.
Will you be installing roof joists or rafters and ceiling joists? If this is a lean-to type of roof, which I think it will be, normally you would use roof joists. These are similar to floor joist, but on a slope. On the garage wall, you would fasten a ledger board, at the roof height and secure the roof joists to it and on the other side , 15' away, you would support the joists on a wall or posts and beam. Do I have the right idea?
Also, what is the snow load there?
I looked up the snow load for Belfast, it is 60 psf, about twice the amount as us. I live on the West Coast of Canada, on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Our precipitation is about half that of Vancouver, about 30 miles away.
Anyway, based on a snow load of 60 lbs per square foot, for a 15' span, your roof joist could be 2x10 spruce, pine, fir, #2 and better at 16" centers. For 24" centers, you need 2x12s, for sure.
Hope this helps,
When cutting the stringer, remember to cut off the bottom of the stringer by the thickness of the treads. Most guys will do this, but they forget to drop the top step of the stringer down the thickness of the tread, as well. Otherwise the treads of the stringer won't be level. When the treads are installed the risers are all the same.
There could be 3 ways to attach a lean-to roof to a shed.
You don't need to remove shingles, but it does a better job of getting the lean-to framing down on the existing roof deck. Obviously, it depends on what condition the shingles are in and if they are laying nice and flat, etc. You may not need flashing between the old and new roofs, just continue the shingles over the lap of the lean-to.
Here is a drawing of the 2nd and 3rd possibilities:
Here is a drawing for a roof supported by a ledger, as in #1:
This drawing shows rafters and ceiling joist. You could eliminate the ceiling joist for roof joists. I mainly wanted to show you the ledger idea. I have plans for a Patio Cover which details this idea: http://daveosborne.com/dave/projects/patio-roof.php
Also a lean-to roof plan: http://daveosborne.com/dave/projects/lean-to-shed-plan-6.php
I hope this helps,
Hi Vic and thanks for the nice comments.
Here is a link to our Patio Roof plan: http://daveosborne.com/dave/projects/patio-roof.php
The ledger is a board the same size as required for your roof joists that you fasten to the wall, tight to the sheeting. The ledger is attached to framing behind the wall, either vertical members, studs at either 16" or 24" on center. The box or rim joist is part of a floor frame. If you are above the floor level, there won't be a box joist to fasten to, just the studs. You can find these "hidden" studs with a stud finder or remove the vinyl siding and tear back the tarpaper or tyvek to expose the sheeting. You should do this anyway to fasten the ledger directly against the sheeting, into the studs. If there is a window on that wall you could fasten the ledger, above the window, to the window header. Here is a drawing of a wall without the sheeting, so you can see what is there:
Notice that the stud layout is independent of where the window is placed in the wall. We know that at the sides of the windows are a double stud, but you can't measure from these studs 16" to find the next stud. We usually frame all the headers the same - 2x10 tight to the underside of the top plate. This may not be the case in your house. We are only required to put a header in which will support the span, for example a double 2x4 header will support a 3 foot opening, you don't need a 2x10. The rest of the space is filled with upper window studs, just like below the window. Usually, for a house that is built within the past 20 years or so it will have solid 2x10 headers, unless the framers were "old school". You can see this quite clearly by removing the house wrap and seeing where the nails for the sheeting are. Tapping the sheeting will also tell you what is solid and what is not. Dave
Use the standard drywall screw that is #6 x 1 1/4". Go with a 2x2 where possible, especially on the outside corner. This makes it easier to screw from both sides of the corner.
(taken from our website: DaveOsborne.com
Could you please tell me how you build headers for closet bifold doors that are 6'0" wide on non-bearing walls? Do you just build them out of 2x4's?
A non-bearing wall doesn't need a header, as such. You only need a single horizontal plate with studs up to the top plate. Here is a drawing to clarify:
Remember that the opening for your bifold door is 6'-0" x 6'-8" finished, that is including drywall.
Do you know how I might find information on building the walls and roof of a residential home from cement as they do in commercial construction? This seems like it would be an extremely strong and inexpensive building.
Concrete is not really inexpensive. The forming material alone would be the cost of the conventional framing. The roof slabs would require beams and posts to hold them up for 28 days. An engineer would have to be involved since it is not conventional. Forming pockets for plumbing and wiring through the walls and roof would have to be considered. Attachments for windows and doors would have to be allowed. Once built, it would last forever, though.
Most of the industrial buildings that I worked on were structural steel buildings with suspended slabs of concrete for the floors, the roofs were mostly steel as well. The buildings that were made totally of concrete were built that way for the structural strength required to support primary crushers and the like.
Commercial buildings including schools were built of concrete block with steel or timber roofs. I worked on high rise buildings that were mainly concrete construction. These are very expensive structures to build.
All things considered, I wouldn't advise building a residence out of concrete, there are too many better products out there. Concrete is best left to the footings and foundation walls.... Read more at http://daveosborne.com/dave/articles/remodeling-wood-framing.php
Well, that does it for another month. Thanks for your questions, hope my answers were helpful.
Dan and I appreciate your emails and support.
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